There are few things you must have to know before buying a water purifier in India. Which water purifier has to buy decisions depends on the contaminates, metal particles present in your home water and hardness of water. Here we are presenting water purifier types, their advantages and disadvantages, how they work and what type of contaminants, metals, impurities they removes.
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Depending on the water purification methods water purifiers are can be classified into 5 types.
- Reverse Osmosis(RO)
- Activated Carbon
- Sediment filter
RO Water Purifier
RO water purifier user semipermeable membrane to purify water. To pass the water through the RO membrane, uses water pump that pressurizes the raw hard water to pass through the RO membrane. During this process dissolved solid like arsenic, fluoride, lead, chlorine, nitrates and sulfates are trapped, stuck in RO membrane and as a result get purified water.
RO water purifier most effective to purify hard, salt water contains dissolved solids and chemicals. The only RO water purifier is capable to remove metal particles like arsenic, fluoride, lead, chlorine, nitrates and sulfates. If you have this this type of home water just get fit RO water purifier and rest assured that you get purified, safe drinking water.
RO water purifier types:
RO water purifier classified into two types depending on the where they mounted.
- Wall mounted or table top RO water purifier
- Under-Sink or Under-Counter RO water purifier
Wall mounted or table top water purifier is mounted on the wall or on the kitchen table, whereas
Undersink water purifier
placed underneath of the kitchen sink so it hidden.
Advantages of RO water purifier
- RO water purifier removes dissolved solids, metal particles like arsenic, fluoride and lead. Along with these RO water purifier capable remove waterborne disease causing microorganisms like bacteria, viruses. Germs dead bodies are flushed out, so that purified water free from germs dead bodies.
- RO water purifier improves the taste and odour of water by removing the contaminants that causing bad taste and odour.
- RO water purifier is safe, cost effective and easy to maintain.
Disadvantages of RO water purifier
- RO water purifier requires electricity to run. Even it needs running water with optimum water pressure.
- RO water purifier produces lots of waste water. Whatever dissolved solids, germs are flushed through the drain along with wastewater. To purify 10 liters of water RO water purifier produces approximately 5 liter waste water which have to be drained out. Checkout out
RO water purifier advantages and disadvantages for complete information.
UV Water Purifier
UV or Ultraviolet water purifier is proven technology that capable to kill water borne disease causing microorganisms, pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and cysts. This environmental friendly technology didn't use any chemical during the purification process. UV water purifier consists a UV lamp tube through which water has to pass for purification. UV lamp releases UV lamp, when running water exposed to UV light, whatever germs like bacteria and viruses are damaged, inactive. Germs dead bodies remains in water, but these are not harmful any more.
UV water purifier is ideal for low TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) water like lakes, river water. UV water purifiers incapable to treat hard water, which has high TDS level. Just as a UF water purifier, UV water purifier does not remove chemicals like chlorine, arsenic, fluoride present in water.
Advantages of UV water purifier
- Low maintenance cost. Change the UV lamp once in a year or when it stops working.
- High purification rate. UV water purifier capable to deliver 2 to 4 liters of purified water within a minute. Whereas other RO, UF, Activated Carbon water purifier takes several minutes to purify one liter water.
- Low energy consumption. UV water purifier uses electricity as much as an electric bulb use.
- Very less manual cleaning. If you have a UV water purifier with storage tank, it requires to clean twice in a week, whereas without storage tank water purifier need almost no manual cleaning.
- Does not alter the water taste. UV water purifier does not use any chemicals, or any semi permissible membrane. Therefore, water taste does not alters.
- UV keep essential minerals. Does not remove, change the human essential mineral present in water./li>
Disadvantages of UV water purifier
- Germs bodies remains in purified water. UV water purifier kills water borne disease causing bacteria, viruses and other pathogens, but their dead bodies still remain in purified drinking water. In case of fewer germs not exposed to UV light and remains live or redevelop and reproduce their population and makes water impure.
- UV does not improves water taste or colour. Using UV water purifier, before and after purification taste and color does not alter. If treating water has a bad smell, odor than have to use the Activated Carbon water purifier with a combination of UV water purifier.
- Does not effective on turbid, mud water. Undissolved Solids like sand, mud and other organic solid matter becomes an obstacle to pass UV light through the water.
- UV water purifier not purifies hard water. UV water purifier designed for purifying low TDS(Total Dissolved Solids) lake, river water.
- UV water purifier not removes toxic chemicals. UV light exposure does not effect on chemicals like chlorine, fluoride.
Advantages and disadvantages of UV water purifier for complete information.
UF(UltraFilteration) Water Purifier
UF or Ultrafiltration uses hollow fibers of a membrane which is made of a thin layer of material which is capable to separate water and other particles present in water. When water feed through the UF membrane, suspended solids, bacteria and viruses sticks, trap, retained in UF membrane. Basically UF is similar to RO technology, the only the difference is RO can block very minute particles, whereas UF blocks little bit large particles.
UF water purifier is ideal for the places where presence of chemical contamination is low, because UF does not remove chemicals present in water, it only capable to block, remove germs like bacteria and viruses.
The important thing is to remember that UF does not work with hard water. As UF does not remove dissolved salts present in hard water, as result before and after purification, water as it is hard only.
Advantages of UF water purifier
- Works without electricity. Just poured raw water in the upper storage tank and purified water collected in the lower storage tank. No need to bother about water pressure.
- Work in low water pressure conditions.
- Does not uses chemicals. UF uses hollow membranes to block bacteria and viruses.
- Filter muddy water also. UF capable to remove mold and germs from water, whereas other water purifiers like UV are incapable to purify muddy water.
- No germs dead bodies in purified water. Whatever germs like viruses, bacterias are blocked in UF membrane. Purified water is free from their dead bodies, whereas other water purifiers like UV, even after purification germs dead bodies are floating in purified water which can further contaminate water.
- Log life span. As UF membrane block germs and during manual cleaning these trapped germs are flushed out. UF membrane can be cleaned thousands of times. Pesticides, chemical are not able to damage UF hollow membranes. In good conditions, UF membrane can be used up to 3 to 5 years.
Disadvantages of UF water purifier
- Does not work with hard water. UF does not remove dissolved solids which causes hardness of water. UF can’t be used to bore-well water, which has high level dissolved solids. It is recommended to use a UF water purifier with public supply water from lakes, rivers.
- Frequent cleaning required.In UF water purifier germs are trapped, blocked in UF membrane and stay there until manually clean UF membrane. While bacteria and viruses stay in UF membrane, probably germs reproduce and increase their population causes impurities. That’s why it is mandatory to clean UF membrane regularly twice in a week.
Activated Carbon Water Purifier
Activated Carbon is a form of carbon (that made from coal, coconut shell, nut shells, wood) that divided into small pieces. Usually activated carbon made from charcoal. Activated Carbon removes most water borne disease causing pesticides and heavy metals. Activated carbon removes chemicals that make water tastes and smell bad. Activated CArbon is most effective to remove chlorine from water.
Activated Carbon is used “Adsorption” property to purify the water. During Adsorption process whatever chemicals and metals present in water stick to Activated Carbon surface. When water passes through the Activated Carbon, the chemical like chlorine and other pesticides are sticking to it and purified water moves to lower storage tank.
Advantages of Activated Carbon
- Removes diseases causing pesticides and toxic chemicals like Chlorine.
- Removes heavy metal particles
- Makes water smells and tastes good.
- Activated carbon helps to improve RO membrane life by blocking chlorine and other particles which are damaging the RO membrane.
Disadvantages of Activated Carbon
- Activated Carbon does not remove dissolved salts which causing hardness of water.
- Does not removes bacteria and viruses. The worst thing is improper maintenance causing higher growth of bacteria on the Activated Carbon surface. In case, activated carbon water purifier not in use for a long time, microorganisms like bacteria and viruses starts growing on the activated carbon surface.
This one is a pre filter mean it used along with other water purifiers like RO, UV. The matter which is collected at the bottom of water or liquid is known as sediment. Sediment may be rust flakes of metal pipes, sand or mud particles and removes turbidity of water. The basically sediment filter catches unwanted dust, mud particles present in water.
In India, most of the sediment filters are made from cotton, polyester fibers. Sediment filter comes in a roll shape, stay in the plastic sealed housing container as shown in below figure. Sediment filter at the point just before any other water purifier water inlet. When pass through the sediment filter whatever dirt, dust particles are trapped in it. Water outlet of sediment filter is connected to RO or UV water purifier as water inlet.
Advantages of Sediment filter
- Removes dirt, dust, rust, mud particles present in water.
- Removes any visible pollutants during pre filtration, which may further enter into the other purification system and damage.
- By removing sand particles sediment filter protects RO, UV purifiers from getting damaged and it increases RO, UV lifespan.
Disadvantages of Sediment filter
- Does not removes dissolved solids, heavy metals and germs like bacteria, viruses.
- However, sediment filter used as the pre filter along with other purification Ro, UV which is capable to remove dissolved solids, heavy metals and germs like bacteria, viruses.
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